Bericht über die Gesundheitskrise in Syrien

Hier kön­nen Sie den englis­chen Bericht herun­ter­laden, der anlässlich der Geschehnisse in Syrien 2011 die Repres­sio­nen gegen Ver­wun­dete und Heilberufler*innen doku­men­tiert:                               2014 health cri­sis syria

Der englis­che Titel lautet “Health  Syr­i­an Gov­ern­ment Tar­gets The Wound­ed And Health Work­ers”.  Die AI-Indexnum­mer des Berichts ist MDE 24/059/2011.

Die englis­che Ein­leitung des Texts kön­nen Sie hier lesen:


The Syr­i­an author­i­ties have turned hos­pi­tals and med­ical staff into instru­ments of repres­sion in the course of their efforts to crush the unprece­dent­ed mass protests and demon­stra­tions that have wracked the coun­try since March 2011. Peo­ple wound­ed in protests or oth­er inci­dents relat­ed to the upris­ing have been ver­bal­ly abused and phys­i­cal­ly assault­ed in staterun hos­pi­tals, includ­ing by med­ical staff, and in some cas­es denied med­ical care, in gross breach of med­ical ethics, and many of those tak­en to hos­pi­tal have been detained.
As casu­al­ties from the cur­rent unrest have mount­ed, so Pres­i­dent Bashar al-Assad’s gov­ern­ment has inten­si­fied its hunt for the wound­ed, who are gen­er­al­ly deemed to be oppo­nents and out­laws. Some army sol­diers and mem­bers of the secu­ri­ty forces loy­al to the
gov­ern­ment have also been killed or injured while com­bat­ing the unrest but Amnesty Inter­na­tion­al has received no reports of med­ical abus­es in their cases.
In Homs, one of Syria’s major cities and gov­er­norates, gov­ern­ment secu­ri­ty forces have obstruct­ed ambu­lances on their way to pick up wound­ed peo­ple and when fer­ry­ing the wound­ed to hos­pi­tal, threat­ened Syr­i­an Arab Red Cres­cent (SARC) work­ers with vio­lence or deten­tion and inter­ro­gat­ed wound­ed patients while they were still being con­veyed in ambu­lances. They have ordered all those with firearm or oth­er injuries relat­ed to the unrest to be direct­ed to the mil­i­tary hos­pi­tal, which is con­trolled by the Min­istry of Defence, and such patients have been treat­ed effec­tive­ly as detainees while in hos­pi­tal and held incommunicado.
Hos­pi­tals have increas­ing­ly come to be seen as dan­ger­ous places for peo­ple whom the author­i­ties sus­pect of oppos­ing the gov­ern­ment, and both pri­vate and pub­lic hos­pi­tals have been instruct­ed to report to the author­i­ties any patients who have sus­tained firearm or oth­er unrest-relat­ed injuries. The secu­ri­ty forces have reg­u­lar­ly entered state hos­pi­tals in search of peo­ple injured dur­ing the protests, who are liable to be arrest­ed, detained incom­mu­ni­ca­do and sub­ject­ed to tor­ture or oth­er ill-treat­ment. In con­se­quence, unsur­pris­ing­ly, many peo­ple are now report­ed­ly avoid­ing state-run hos­pi­tals if they or their rel­a­tives have been wound­ed dur­ing the protests and unrest, and turn­ing instead to pri­vate hos­pi­tals where they may obtain treat­ment with­out expos­ing them­selves to like­ly arrest or to the makeshift field hos­pi­tals that have been set up by some local com­mu­ni­ties to treat peo­ple shot or oth­er­wise wound­ed by the army and secu­ri­ty forces.
These pri­vate and field hos­pi­tals, how­ev­er, face prob­lems in obtain­ing ade­quate med­ical sup­plies, includ­ing blood for use in trans­fu­sions, which they can obtain only from the Cen­tral Blood Bank con­trolled by the Min­istry of Defence. When pri­vate hos­pi­tals request new sup­plies from this Cen­tral Blood Bank, it inevitably trig­gers offi­cial sus­pi­cion that they may be pro­vid­ing med­ical treat­ment to peo­ple wound­ed dur­ing anti-gov­ern­ment protests, funer­als of killed pro­tes­tors or oth­er unrest-relat­ed incidents.
Doc­tors, nurs­es and oth­er health work­ers who encounter peo­ple wound­ed in the unrest are now being con­front­ed with a daunt­ing dilem­ma – whether to obey the government’s instruc­tions and report patients to the author­i­ties, know­ing that this may very well lead to the patients’ arrest, deten­tion and pos­si­ble tor­ture, or to ignore or dis­obey those instruc­tions, put their patients wel­fare first and there­by expose them­selves to the risk of gov­ern­ment reprisals.
Many know that the secu­ri­ty forces have raid­ed hos­pi­tals in which they believed wound­ed unrest vic­tims were being treat­ed and are prob­a­bly aware that a num­ber of health pro­fes­sion­als have been detained, and in some cas­es tor­tured, for seek­ing to pro­tect patients in their care.
One doc­tor employed at a state-run hos­pi­tal in Dam­as­cus who has also assist­ed as a vol­un­teer in makeshift field hos­pi­tals, told Amnesty International:
“At the ear­ly stage of the upris­ing, I treat­ed some wound­ed peo­ple in field hos­pi­tals set up near sites of shoot­ings, and referred them to gov­ern­ment-run hos­pi­tals… They were all detained… and we all know that they’d be sub­ject­ed to harsh tor­ture… I can­not send them to torture.”
As has been the case for decades, peo­ple in Syr­ia who speak to inter­na­tion­al human rights orga­ni­za­tions risk severe reper­cus­sions. Con­se­quent­ly, Amnesty Inter­na­tion­al exer­cised great cau­tion when com­pil­ing the infor­ma­tion con­tained in this report and has omit­ted the names of indi­vid­u­als it inter­viewed or oth­er infor­ma­tion that could expose these sources to seri­ous risk.
Amnesty Inter­na­tion­al was not able to con­duct research on the ground in Syr­ia; like oth­er inter­na­tion­al human rights orga­ni­za­tions and most inter­na­tion­al jour­nal­ists and oth­er inde­pen­dent observers, the orga­ni­za­tion has been effec­tive­ly barred by the gov­ern­ment from vis­it­ing Syr­ia since the cur­rent protests and unrest broke out in mid-March. Like­wise, by ear­ly Octo­ber 2011 the UN High Com­mis­sion­er for Human Rights was still await­ing per­mis­sion from the Syr­i­an author­i­ties to vis­it the coun­try to “inves­ti­gate all alleged vio­la­tions of inter­na­tion­al human rights law and to estab­lish the facts and cir­cum­stances of such vio­la­tions and of the crimes per­pe­trat­ed”, as man­dat­ed by the UN Human Rights Coun­cil on 29 April 2011.
This report is based on research con­duct­ed in August and Sep­tem­ber 2011. Inter­views were con­duct­ed with indi­vid­u­als wound­ed dur­ing the ongo­ing dis­tur­bances; rel­a­tives of those wound­ed and sub­se­quent­ly detained; rel­a­tives of peo­ple with firearm and oth­er injuries relat­ed to the ongo­ing unrest; and health pro­fes­sion­als and medics, includ­ing sur­geons, doc­tors, nurs­es and oth­er hos­pi­tal employ­ees. Gov­ern­ment sur­veil­lance and restric­tions on means of com­mu­ni­ca­tion, and the poor qual­i­ty of the inter­net con­nec­tion in Syr­ia were among the obsta­cles to research. The dete­ri­o­rat­ing secu­ri­ty sit­u­a­tion also meant that health pro­fes­sion­als were often too busy treat­ing patients to speak to Amnesty Inter­na­tion­al or were too afraid to do so.
Despite these chal­lenges, the pat­terns of abuse record­ed in this report and the evi­dence gar­nered from oth­er sources pro­vide a com­pelling pic­ture of how the Syr­i­an author­i­ties are block­ing access to health care for peo­ple wound­ed dur­ing the unrest and pre­vent­ing health care pro­fes­sion­als from treat­ing such patients freely and with­out fear. Such actions fla­grant­ly vio­late Syria’s oblig­a­tions under inter­na­tion­al human rights law.
Amnesty Inter­na­tion­al is call­ing on the Gov­ern­ment of Syr­ia, among oth­er things, to:

Give strict and clear instruc­tions to all pub­lic and pri­vate hos­pi­tals to accept and treat all wound­ed patients with­out delay, and to pri­or­i­tize the inter­ests of the patients over any oth­er pri­or­i­ties set by the secu­ri­ty and oth­er authorities;

Hold to account any health pro­fes­sion­al or employ­ee at hos­pi­tals and oth­er health facil­i­ties who vio­lates med­ical ethics by mis­us­ing their posi­tion to sub­ject vul­ner­a­ble indi­vid­u­als, includ­ing wound­ed patients, to ver­bal or phys­i­cal abuse, tor­ture or oth­er ill­treat­ment, or to deny them nec­es­sary med­ical care;

Instruct all mem­bers of the mil­i­tary and secu­ri­ty forces to pri­ori­tise the treat­ment of wound­ed indi­vid­u­als over inter­ro­ga­tion, treat such indi­vid­u­als humane­ly, allow with­out any inter­fer­ence med­ical treat­ment of these and oth­er patients, and hold to account any­one proved to have delayed, obstruct­ed or inter­fered in the work of health work­ers pro­vid­ing treat­ment to the wounded;

Stop arbi­trary deten­tions of health pro­fes­sion­als for per­form­ing their duty of attend­ing to per­sons with med­ical needs or for exer­cis­ing their right to free­dom of expres­sion or oth­er peace­ful activ­i­ties, and release with­out delay all wound­ed per­sons, health work­ers and oth­er detainees unless they are prompt­ly charged with inter­na­tion­al­ly rec­og­niz­able crimes and tried in full con­for­mi­ty with inter­na­tion­al stan­dards for fair trial.